For all the variety of the museum collection its focus is the Art of Uzbekistan.
Uzbekistan is the oldest centre of world civilization which was appeared on the fertile water-meadows of Central Asia inter – river. The main routes of the Great Silk Route passed through Uzbekistan. In occupied the central point in the chain of the civilizations and ancient states stretching from Pacific to Atlantic Ocean. The geographic location of Central Asia promoted the exchange of achievements between the advanced civilizations of the East and the West. The active interaction of the different cultures took place here : local, middle Asian with ancient Egyptian, Iranian, Chinese, Greek – Hellenic, Indean – Buddhist, Roman – Byzantine, Arab – Moslem etc. The site of ancient settlements, the creations of wall paintings and sculptures, articles of ceramics, metal, jewellery and many other monuments of Fine Art of the Museum, which remained till now, testify about it.
There are valuable items of antique and earlier Kuskhan plastics are presented by clay sculpture, decorated the palace castle on the site of ancient settlement of Halchayan in Surkhandarya region in the I b.c. century. These works demonstrate great skill of the local sculptors, who were acquainted with the traditions Hellenic Art. In psychologically refined images one can see the mundane line of the antique art the southern regions of Uzbekistan.
In the earlier medieval period the important centres of urban civilization become as well as Samarkand, Bukhara, cities Fergana, Chacha and Tokharistan. In the Art of this time equally with the religious themes, the secular themes are widely practiced such as scenes of the palace life, mythological and epic topics. The penetration of the Buddhism from Tokharistan in Fergana was in the V – VII cc. and it was reflected in the themes of the sculpture from Kuva temple in Fergana. The images of the militant defenders of Buddhist faith were imprinted on the expressive by its type sculptures. The fragments of gunch ornament of the VII – VIII cc. A.D. from the former Bukhara rules` palace in Varakhsha of Bukhara region with imprint of plants, animals and scenes of the hunt reflect the secular tendency in the earlier medieval art.
The archaeological excavations on Uzbekistan territory gave numerous models of ancient and medieval ceramics astounding by their fine artistic quality. The ceramics of each epoch has its own values.
From the VIII c. the glazed ceramics got a wide spread on the territory of Uzbekistan. In the X – XIII cc. the glazed ceramics of Afrasiab (Samarkand) occupies the dominated position not only in Moveraunnakhr but all over the Islamic Art of that period. It was no accident the Afrasiab ceramics was the subject of the export and was taken out to many countries of Moslem world. It was distinguished not only by high quality of pottery, glaze, colours but by perfect forms and drawing.
The first – class ceramic models of Samarkand, Tashkent, Bukhara, Fergana,Termez and other cities are on the display and they are notable for their excellent richness of ornament: equally with stylized images the calligraphically inscription were very widely used.
Akhciket is one of the most ancient settlements of Fergana. The glazed fine ceramic of Akhciket of the X c. is presented by the delightful model of the elegant semi spherical chalice with the ornament on the white background.
There are fragments of the decor in facings from carved glazed terra cotta, mosaic, majolica, which were used in decoration of the architectural monuments of the XIII – XVIII cc. on display in the Museum. Among them mosaic panel from Ulugh Beg`s madrasah from Samarkand (XVc.), mosaic lattice –pandjara –from Gazayan mosque from Bukhara (XVI c.), majolica panel and timpans decorated Bazari Gusphand mosque in Bukhara (the beginning of the XVIIc.).